The Hormone Shop
I INTRODUCTION (read about Indian Generic Drug Companies)
Pituitary Gland, master endocrine gland in vertebrate animals. The hormones secreted by the pituitary stimulate and control the functioning of almost all the other endocrine glands in the body. Pituitary hormones also promote growth and control the water balance of the body.
lobes—the anterior lobe, or adenohypophysis, and the posterior lobe, or neurohypophysis—which differ in structure and function. The anterior lobe is derived embryologically from the roof of the pharynx and is composed of groups of epithelial cells separated by blood channels; the posterior lobe is derived from the base of the brain and is composed of nervous connective tissue and nerve like secreting cells. The area between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary is called the intermediate lobe; it has the same embryological origin as the anterior lobe.
II THE ANTERIOR LOBE
Research has shown that the hormonal activity of the anterior lobe is controlled by chemical messengers sent from the hypothalamus through tiny blood vessels to the anterior lobe. In the 1950s, the British neurologist Geoffrey Harris discovered that cutting the blood supply from the hypothalamus to the pituitary impaired the function of the pituitary. In 1964, chemical agents called releasing factors were found in the hypothalamus; these substances, it was learned, affect the secretion of growth hormone, a thyroid-stimulating hormone called thyrotropin, and the gonadotropic hormones involving the testes and ovaries. In 1969 the American endocrinologist Roger Guillemin and colleagues isolated and characterized thyrotropin-releasing factor, which stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. In the next few years his group and that of the American physiologist Andrew Victor Schally isolated the luteinizing hormone-releasing factor, which stimulates secretion of both LH and FSH, and somatostatin, which inhibits release of growth hormone. For this work, which proved that the brain and the endocrine system are linked, they shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1977. Human somatostatin was one of the first substances to be grown in bacteria by recombinant DNA.
The presence of the releasing factors in the hypothalamus helped to explain the action of the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and their synthetic versions contained in oral contraceptives, or birth-control pills. During a woman's normal monthly cycle, several hormonal changes are needed for the ovary to produce an egg cell for possible fertilization. When the estrogen level in the body declines, the follicle-releasing factor (FRF) flows to the pituitary and stimulates the secretion of the follicle-stimulating hormone. Through a similar feedback principle, the declining level of progesterone causes a release of luteal-releasing factor (LRF), which stimulates secretion of the luteinizing hormone. The ripening follicle in the ovary then produces estrogen, and the high level of that hormone influences the hypothalamus to shut down temporarily the production of FSH. Increased progesterone feedback to the hypothalamus shuts down LH production by the pituitary. The daily doses of synthetic estrogen and progesterone in oral contraceptives, or injections of the actual hormones, inhibit the normal reproductive activity of the ovaries by mimicking the effect of these hormones on the hypothalamus.
III THE INTERMEDIATE LOBE
IV THE POSTERIOR LOBE
V PITUITARY DISTURBANCES
Oversecretion of one of the anterior pituitary hormones, somatotropin, results in a progressive chronic disease called acromegaly, which is characterized by enlargement of some parts of the body. Posterior-lobe deficiency results in diabetes insipidus.
© 1998-2011 by The Hormone Shop, LLC.
This Site does not endorse any product advertised on
Disclaimer: The Hormone Shop LLC assumes no liability, whether under a theory of contract, tort, negligence, product liability or otherwise. In no event shall The Hormone Shop LLC be liable for any direct or indirect, consequential, incidental, special, punitive or exemplary damages, or for any loss incurred due to results or comments that are reported or the use of collection materials that are supplied, or any prescriptions regardless of whether The Hormone Shop LLC knew or should have known of the possibility of such damages. Furthermore, in no event shall The Hormone Shop LLC's total cumulative liability exceed The Hormone Shop LLC's net profit on any specific product, sample or consultation giving rise to the liability. The Hormone Shop LLC specifically assumes no liability incurred by any 3rd party associate and if you are reading this web site in a language other that English it has been machine translated by SYSTRAN who strives to achieve the highest possible accuracy, however no automated translation is perfect nor is it intended to replace human translators. Users should note that the quality of the source text significantly affects the translations and The Hormone Shop LLC assumes no liability for incorrect or misleading translations. The questions and comments appearing in the "Discussion Group Forum" are strictly from unknown or unidentified sources and the reader/participant should be aware that credentials from any source are completely lacking and should be questioned. The Hormone Shop LLC specifically assumes no liability for any comment or advice appearing in the "Discussion Forum".
Notice: This information on anti-aging products is
provided for educational and nutritional purposes. Any medical procedures,
dietary changes or the use of dietary supplements discussed herein should only
be undertaken on the advice of a qualified medical doctor. Although listed and
sold as dietary supplements these are not innocuous, inert substances; rather
they can and do affect vital systems within the human body and it is for this
reason that you are urged to find a medical doctor who will work with you in
monitoring and maintaining your well being.